A Facility layout is the physical configuration of departments, workstations, and equipments in the conversion process. it is arrangement of physical resources used to create the product. Success of operations depends on the physical layouts of the facilities. Flow of raw material. Productivity and human relationship are all affected by the arrangements of the conversion facilities.
Plant layout involves:
i) planning and arranging facilities in new plant
ii) improvements in existing layout to introduce new methods.
Layout decisions have long term consequences on cost and companies ability to serve the customers.
Major objectives of layout
i) Providing enough production capacity
ii) Reducing material handling costs
iii) Easy supervisions
iv) Improvement in productivity
v) Efficient utilization labour
vi) Increase in morale of the employees
vii) Reducing accidents and hazards to personnel
viii) Reducing congestion
ix) utilizing the space efficiently and effectively.
Factor Affecting Layout
1. Material – materials need storage. Layout should cater to storage and transportation of materials.
2. Product – Layout should suit to the nature of product and its method of production. i.e. aircraft manufacturing and car manufacturing layouts will be different. Sales also affects the layout.
3. Machinery – Size of machinery based on product, its volume and labour, affects the layout.
4. labour – Movement of workers, facilities for workers like canteen, toilet, restroom etc affects the layout.
5. Location – Type of building depends on the soil condition. Location decides the transportation and layout plan has to take care of this aspect.
6. Managerial policies – top management decides the layout objectives
7. Type of industry
Types Of Layout
The layouts are differentiated by the types of workflow they entail , and workflow in turn is dictated by the nature of product. Basic layouts are :
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