Plant Layout

Topics: Manufacturing, Machine, Material Pages: 5 (1113 words) Published: March 6, 2013



12MBA 1138


Meaning, Definition and Scope:
A plant layout generally refers to an arrangement of machinery, equipment and other industrial facilities like receiving and shipping departments, tool rooms, maintenance rooms and various employee amenities, for the purpose of achieving the fastest and the smoothest production at a minimum cost. In other words, plant layout is a floor plan for determining the and arranging the desired machinery and equipments of a plant, whether established or yet to be established, in one of the best place to permit the quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of the raw materials to the shipment of the finished products. According to Knowles and Thomson, a plant layout involves:

The planning and arrangement of manufacturing machinery, equipments and various services for the first time in completely new plants and improvements in the layouts already in use in order to introduce new methods and improvements in manufacturing procedures.

Objectives Of A Good Layout:
1. Provide enough production capacity.
2. Reduce the material handling cost.
3. Reduce hazards to the personnel.
4. Utilize the labour efficiency.
5. Increase employee morale.
6. Reduce the cases of accidents.
7. Utilize the available space effectively and efficiently. 8. Provides towards easy supervision.
9. Allow easy maintenance activities.
10. Provide for employee safety and health.
11. Allow optimum utilization of machines and equipments. 12. Improves the overall productivity.

Types Of Layouts:
A. Process Layout
Also refered as the functional layout, layout for a job lot manufacture or batch production layout, the process layout involves a grouping together of like machines in one department. For example, machines performing drilling operations are installed in the drilling department, machines performing casting operations are grouped in the casting department and like wise. The process arrangement is signified by the grouping together of like machines based upon their operational characteristics. For example, engine lathes will be arranged in one department, turret lathes in a second department and milling machines in a third department.

Advantages of process layout:
i. Reduced investment on the machines as they are general purpose machines. ii. Greater flexibility in the production.
iii. Better and efficient supervision is possible.
iv. Better utilization of men, materials and machines.
v. Easy to handle the breakdown of equipment by transferring work to another machine or station. vi. There is a greater incentive to the individual worker to increase his performance.

Disadvantages of process layout:
i. There is difficulty in the movement of materials. Mechanical devices for handling materials cannot br conveniently used. ii. This type of layout requires more floor space.
iii. There is a great difficulty in the production control. iv. There is an accumulation of work in progress at different places.

B. Product layout
Also known as straight line layout or layout for serialized manufacture, it involves the arrangement of machines in one line, depending upon the sequence of operations. Materials are fed into the first machine and finished products come out of the last machine. In between , partly finished goods travel automatically from machine to machine, the output of one machine becoming the input for the next.

Advantages of product layout:
i. There is a mechanism of materials handling and consequently reducing the materials handling cost. ii. It avoids the production bottlenecks....
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