Process Design Matrix and Summary
November 8, 2014
J. Phillip Harris
Process Design Matrix and Summary
The purpose of this summary is to outline different process design approaches for a service and for a product. The service selected for this assignment is a bicycle and kayak rental operation which handles reservations but also special requests and customer complaints. The product is a customized cooler bag designed to be handed out as a promotional item. The customized item goes through two separate processes, one that manufactures the item and the second one that customizes it by printing a customer logo on it. Three approaches are available for the service processes and these are commonly referred to as production line, self-service, and personal attention (Jacobs & Chase, 2011, p.226). Manufacturing processes include a project layout, workcenter or job shop approach, manufacturing cell, and assembly line or continuous processes (Jacobs & Chase, 2011, p.166). Service Processes
The production line process which was pioneered by McDonald’s applies manufacturing principles to the delivery of services by focusing activities on the efficient delivery of results. This process requires a high level of standardization in the services delivered at the expense of personal attention to customer requests (Jacobs & Chase, 2011, p. 227). Self-Service
At the opposite end of the spectrum from the production line approach is the self-service approach which puts customers not only in control but makes them an integral part of the service delivery process (Jacobs & Chase, 2011, p. 227). Personal Attention
The personal attention approach is the least efficient of the processes and centers entirely on attending to the needs and desires of customers. This approach can be desirable in cases where customers have high expectations and unique requests as may be the case in a luxury hotel or upscale retail store (Jacobs & Chase, 2011, pp. 227-228). Manufacturing Processes
A project layout is the least efficient of the manufacturing processes because it is designed to handle one-offs and highly customized products. It is appropriate for complex and large projects that result in a small quantity of deliverables because the processes revolve around the main deliverable (Jacobs & Chase, 2011, p.166). Workcenters
A workcenter layout is a little more efficient than a project layout and aims at reducing the movement of materials throughout the process. It is appropriate for small runs and items that are easy to move from one workcenter to another (Jacobs & Chase, 2011, p.166). Manufacturing Cell
Manufacturing cells are similar to workcenters in the sense that the product to and from equipment that is difficult or sometimes impossible to move (Jacobs & Chase, 2011, p.166). Assembly Line and Continuous Process
A continuous or assembly line process is an incremental manufacturing process where the product moves from between different stations throughout the transformation process in a coordinated and synchronized way. It is the most efficient of the manufacturing processes for handling large volumes of product which go through several steps in the manufacturing process such as cars or liquids (Jacobs & Chase, 2011, p.167). Examples
In the bicycle and kayak rental operation example, a personal attention approach is appropriate because the volume of sales is relatively low, customers may need the bicycle adjusted before leaving the store, and the store needs to ensure that safety instructions are understood.
In the case of the customized promotional items, an assembly-line layout for the manufacturing of the basic item is appropriate as large volumes of identical items can be manufactured in batches made to stock. For the personalization part, a workcenter approach is appropriate in a made to order process in order to fulfill small runs of customized product....
References: Jacobs, F. R. & Chase, R. (2011). Operations and Supply Chain Management (13th ed.) Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
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