Operations Management

Topics: Manufacturing, Job production, Mass production Pages: 5 (1330 words) Published: June 4, 2013
1.Describe the characteristics of project, jobbing, batch, line and continuous processes in manufacturing, providing real-life examples. Answer:
Project
In a project process, the inputs are brought to the project location as they are needed; there is no flow in the process. Technically, a project is not a process flow structure since there is no flow of product - the quantity produced usually is equal to one. It is worthwhile, however, to treat it as a process structure here since it represents one extreme of the spectrum. Projects are suitable for unique products that are different each time they are produced. The firm brings together the resources as needed, coordinating them using project management techniques. It should be noted that component parts, sub-assemblies and assemblies might be manufactured elsewhere and then brought to the product location. The workers are usually highly skilled and material handling is high. It is also common for products manufactured using this layout to be one-of-a-kind. •Flow - no flow

Flexibility - very high
Products - unique
Capital investment - very low
Variable cost - very high
Labor content and skill - very high
Volume – one
Real life examples of Project process include building ships, aircraft, space vehicles, bridges, Skyscraper buildings, etc. Jobbing Process.
A jobbing process is a flexible operation that has several activities through which work can pass. A job shop uses general purpose equipment and relies on the knowledge of workers to produce a wide variety of products. Volume is adjusted by adding or removing labor as needed. Job shops are low in efficiency but high in flexibility. Rather than selling specific products, a job shop often sells its capabilities.

Jobbing process has these characteristics:
Flow - jumbled flow, Flexibility – high, Products – many varieties, Capital investment - low •Variable cost – high, Labor content and skill – high Real life examples of to illustrate the concept of a job shop, is seen in the case of a machine shop. In a machine shop, a variety of equipment such as drill presses, lathes, and milling machines is arranged in stations. Work is passed only to those machines required by it, and in the sequence required by it. A Jobbing process is also seen in Hospitals, where different departments handle different cases with specialized equipments. This is a very flexible arrangement that can be used for wide variety of products & services. Batch Process

The main feature of batch manufacture is the production of medium size lots of a product in either single runs or repeated runs at given times. The lot size range is approximately 5–1000 and even possibly more. Again, as the product variety can be high, the number of processes required is high and therefore the equipment is general purpose. Similar to job shop manufacture, the workforce must be skilled and flexible to cope with the high product variety. The process-focused organization of the job shop is also equally applicable for batch production. Therefore job and batch manufacture are often confused because they have the following common characteristics: The flow of manufacture will be intermittent;

Some parts will be for customer orders and others for stock; Schedule control of orders will be required to ensure delivery times are met; There is a high product variety
A batch process is similar to a job shop, except that the sequence of activities tends to be in a line and is less flexible .Example of batch processes include machine tool manufacturing, the production of components parts which go into mass-product assemblies such as automobiles(Harley Davidson’s motorcycles-USA, Ogbuawa Motorcycles-Nigeria) , production of most clothing, fast food (Mc Donald’s-UK, Genesis Fast foods-Nigeria) etc. Assembly Line Process

Characteristics:
Flow - connected line
Flexibility - low
Products - a few
Capital investment - high
Variable cost -...
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