Question 1) What was the industrial revolution? When did it occur? How did industrialisation lead to the creation of the design profession? How was the industrial manufacturing of making products new and what role did the designer play in creating new products?
The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban. (www.history.com 2013-08-22)
Prior to this the manufacture of goods was often done in peoples homes using their hands, or basic machinery- the ‘designer’ also created the product. Industrialisation shifted this, with the introduction of powered special machinery, factories and mass production. Many everyday items, such as furniture were not made as single pieces but larger quantities. (Hauffe, 1998, p.12)
Question 2) Explain what series & mass production means. What other factors over time have contributed to the high turnover and international sales of manufactured products?
Series production and Mass production means the manufacture of goods in large
quantities, often using standardized designs and assembly-line techniques.
(the Free Dictionary, 2013)
Factors that have contributed to a high turnover in sales include new distribution methods that had not previously been commonly used (this includes catalogs, sale representatives and advertising). Also being also to move products more cost effectively and affordably. (Hauffe, 1998, p.12)
Q3. Explain the meaning of the term “form follows function” and its significance. The supporters of Modernist design and functionalism assumed two things about form follows function. What were they? What do you understand by the meaning of each of these? Explain in your own words.
Form follows function is the idea that the design of a building / object should be based upon its final purpose or its function.
The two assumptions made by supporters of modernist design are 1. That the form of an object had only to suit its function and not include unnecessary details. “Ornament is wasted work effort and therefore wasted wealth” (A. Laas, Decoration and Crime, 1908). 2. The process behind manufacturing products needs to be simple and straightforward involving a metric language, are of a high quality and are long lasting. It is clear that at this point in time the focus of design was the function and that there needed to be an order clearly developed and followed to achieve, a simplification of design with improved usability and fair price. This was filling a need that was apparent at the begging of the industrial revolution.
Question 4) List the Five major focal points of a designer. List them and explain what each one means for marketers, promoters, designers and their practices.
Artistic/Aesthetic - The creative / creating side of the work, designs, ideas. Exploring medias and aesthetics of design and how they interplay between eachother (Typography, Photography etc) 2.
Technical/Functional – Does the design fulfill its intended use, does it have a practical use for marketing? And everyday life/ 3.
Marketing Orientation – Is there a product demand from consumers to make them sellable and profitable for their intended audience. This also involves looking at what has already been done before and specializing their product to fill a gap in the market or a niche. 4.
Theoretical/Scientific – Analysing the environment in which the product will be placed and making sure the technicals of the product meet requirement. Also is the product cost efficient to make with budgeting? 5.
Organizational/Administrative – How the production of this design met standards and policies. Are they of a high standard?
Question 5) “In design, one can speak of three basic functions of an object” 1.Its practical function
2. Its aesthetic function
3. Its symbolic function
5a) Give the meaning and difference between the practical,...
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