Introduction to FMCG sector
The Indian FMCG sector is the fourth largest sector in the economy with a total market size in excess of US$ 13.1 billion. It has a strong MNC presence and is characterised by a well- established distribution network, intense competition between the organised and unorganised segments and low operational cost. Availability of key raw materials, cheaper labour costs and presence across the entire value chain gives India a competitive advantage.
An average Indian spends around 40 per cent of his income on grocery and 8 per cent on personal care products. The large share of fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) in total individual spending along with the large population base is another factor that makes India one of the largest FMCG markets.
FMCG Category and products
| Fabric wash (laundry soaps and synthetic detergents); household cleaners (dish/utensil cleaners, floor cleaners, toilet cleaners, air fresheners, insecticides and mosquito repellents, metal polish and furniture polish).
| Food and Beverages
| Health beverages; soft drinks; staples/cereals; bakery products (biscuits, bread, cakes); snack food; chocolates; ice cream; tea; coffee; soft drinks; processed fruits, vegetables; dairy products; bottled water; branded flour; branded rice; branded sugar; juices etc.
| Personal Care
| Oral care, hair care, skin care, personal wash (soaps); cosmetics and toiletries; deodorants; perfumes; feminine hygiene; paper products.
Presence across value chain
Indian firms also have a presence across the entire value chain of the FMCG industry from supply of raw material to final processed and packaged goods, both in the personal care products and in the food processing sector. For instance, Indian firm Amul's product portfolio includes supply of milk as well as the supply of processed dairy products like cheese and butter. This makes the firms located in India more cost competitive.
PepsiCo's India experience
After a not so successful attempt to enter the Indian market in 1985, Pepsi re-entered in 1988 with a joint venture of PepsiCo, Punjab government-owned Punjab Agro Industrial Corporation (PAIC) and Voltas India Limited. By 1994, Pepsi took advantage of the liberalised policies and took control of Pepsi Foods by making an offer to both Voltas and PAIC to buy their equity. The Indian government gave concessions to the company, Pepsi was allowed to increase its turnover of beverages component to beyond 25 per cent and was no longer restricted by its commitment to export 50 per cent of its turnover. The government approved more than US$ 400 million worth of investment of which over US$ 330 million has already been invested. The government also allowed PepsiCo to set up a new company in India called PepsiCo India Holdings Pvt Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of PepsiCo International, which is engaged in beverage manufacturing, bottling and exports activities as Pepsi Foods Ltd. Since then, the company has bought over bottlers in different parts of India along with Dukes, a popular soft-drink brand in western India to consolidate its market share. This was followed by an introduction of Tropicana juice in the New Delhi and Bangalore markets in 1999. Currently, soft drink concentrate, snack foods and vegetable and food processing are the key products of the company. Pepsi considers India, along with China, as one of the two largest and fastest growing businesses outside North America. Pepsi has 19 company owned factories while their Indian bottling partners own 21. The company has set up 8 greenfield sites in backward regions of different states. PepsiCo intends to expand its operations and is planning an investment of approximately US$ 150 million in the next two-three years.
Focus on urban and rural markets
Most Indian FMCG companies focus on urban markets for value and rural markets for volumes. The total market has expanded from US$ 17.6 billion in...
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