Chapter 6 Manufacturing Process

Topics: Flowchart, Manufacturing, Process architecture Pages: 9 (887 words) Published: July 17, 2013
Chapter 6 Manufacturing Process Design and Layout

Process Flow Structures Process Design Tools Layout Design

1

1

Manufacturing Process Selection and Design
Process Flow Structures How to organize material flow based on product design and competitive dimension? Continuous flow Assembly line, Flow line Batch shop: roller coaster ride, sightseeing tour, red wine Job shop: department store Project (one-of-a-kind): movies

2

1

Continuous flow

Highly automated, integrated production

line. Shutdowns and start-ups are expensive

p.211
petroleum, chemicals, beverages

3

Flow Line

Discrete parts moving at a controlled rate, following the same sequence to build the product.

Honda assembly line 3300 ft, 20 off-line branches

Ex 6.1
4

2

Batch shop
p.210

one piece flow

5

Job Shop
Small batches of many different products, with different processing sequences Assembly Drilling 2 2 Lathe 1 1 1 Milling A B C D Raw materials 4 4 2 3 3 3

Painting

6

3

Product-Process Matrix

Ex 6.2

Honda

specialized equipment and standardized flows become economically feasible

7

Manufacturing Process Flow Design
Record and Evaluate Tables and charts Assembly charts Operation and route sheet Flow process chart (diagnostic tools) Design principles Performance measures Analyze and improve How many orders can we process per hour? How long it will take for an order to go through the system? Where and how much capacity to expand? 8

4

Assembly Chart
Defines the order of the assembly and the overall flow pattern Ex 6.5

operation

inspection

Ex 6.6
9

Process Flow Chart

TN 5.5

Identify activities that can be minimized or eliminated

move, delays, storage

10

5

Operation and Route Sheet

Ex 6.7

Specify process routing, the type of equipment, tooling, and the content of operations

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Design Principle: Equipment Selection
Initial Investment 價格、輔助設備、二手機型 Output Rate 實際產能 Output Quality 精密度、良率 Operating Requirement 空間需求,溫溼度條件 Labor Requirement 人力需求、技術需求 Flexibility 可否生產多種規格 Setup Requirement 暖機或調整生產規格所需時間 Maintenance 維修時間與成本 Obsolescence 產品是否過時、設備的後續用途 Systemwide Impact 與系統或其他設備的配合、符合作業策略

Ex 6.3

12

6

Design Principle: Break-Even Analysis
Outsourcing cost=$200×demand Lathe cost=$80,000+$75 ×demand Machine Center Cost= $200,000+$15 ×demand

Ex 6.4

13

Case: Analyze a Circuit Board Fabrication Line

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7

Facility Layout
Determine the placement of departments, workgroups within departments, workstations, machines, and stock-holding points within a facility to ensure a smooth job (customer) flow. Process Layout (job-shop or functional layout) hospitals, department store Product Layout (flow-shop layout) Group Technology Layout mall Fixed-Position Layout construction, art sculpture

15

Complexities of Process Layout
Challenging routing and scheduling Material handling slow and inefficient Work In Process inventory can be high Equipment utilization rates are low Need special attention for each order or customer Drilling 2 2 Lathe 1 A B 1 1 Milling C D Raw materials 4 2 3 3

Assembly 3 Painting 4

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8

Systematic Layout Planning for Process Layout
Activity Relationship Chart
From 1. Credit department 2. Toy department 3. Wine department 4. Camera department 5. Candy department Letter Closeness rating

To 2 I 6 3 U -U -4 E 4 I 1 U -5 U -A 1,6 X 1 X 1

Area (sq. ft.) 100 400 300 100 100

Number Reason for rating

17

Systematic Layout Planning for Process Layout
Adjust the relative placement to minimize the traffic

Job shop

1 I
Exhibit TN5.9

E 4 A X

3 X 5

2

5

2

4 1

3

2
20 ft

3 5
50 ft
18

1

4

9

Product Layout
materials Station 1 Material and/or labor Station Station 2 2 Material and/or labor Station Station 3 3 Material and/or labor Station Station 4 4 finished goods

Material and/or labor

Problems Creates dull, repetitive jobs Fairly...
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