Bilingual Education

Topics: English language, United States, Second language Pages: 7 (2050 words) Published: July 25, 2013
Bilingual Education in America

Julia Calderon

University of Texas at El Paso

Instructor: Denise Pichardo


The purpose of this Literature is to provide knowledge and understanding of Bilingual Education in current American schools. It will review advocacies and oppositions of Bilingual programs being taught in school systems, the benefits and difficulties of such programs, and how bilingual children relate to this form of education academically and socially. It is crucial that the public is aware of bilingualism taught in school systems due to the growing number of students being enrolled each year in such programs. Students that struggle with English literacy will benefit from the following information about Bilingual Education and calculate whether of not they should attend dual-speaking classrooms rather than mainstream classrooms. Surrounding communities of bilingual individuals as well as native-English speakers could also virtue from being knowledgable of Bilingual Education; Bilingualism and Multilingualism is growing rapidly in the United States in which it is vital the public is equipped with proper tools and knowledge to teach, comprehend, and aid non-native english speakers in America.


In 21st century United States of America, a vast population of students are in danger of not receiving the highest possible opportunity for higher education for the simple, yet crucial element of not understanding the English language. A majority of these students are children of immigrant parents, non-english speaking families, or are immigrants their selves and fall into the undergoing struggle of being proficient bilingual speakers. Many of these young individuals fall into English-deficiency categories such as English as Second Language learners (ESL), Limited English Proficiency (LEP) individuals, and English Language Learners (ELL). Apart from being at an academic disadvantage, these individuals also are targets for racial and social stigmas. Bilingual Education are programs designed to meet specific needs of an ESL, LEP, or ELL students away from mainstream classrooms. It involves teaching academic content in two languages, in native and secondary language. There are many controversies concerning Bilingual programs being taught on school grounds and many issues concerning the methods of language development. In order for the American public to better understand and comprehend the challenges of being a bilingual student, the following questions will be answered within the literature:

What is the most benefiting learning environment for an ESL student?

What social obstacles do ESL students face?

What are the policies and programs concerning Bilingual/ESL students inside the classroom?

The following review on literature will focus on the questions of Bilingual Education by providing information surrounding the challenges, current issues, and possible resolutions for the Bilingual generation in America.

What is the most benefiting learning environment for an ESL student?

Whether or not to teach English as Second Language students (ESL) in a mainstream classroom is heavy, complicated issue discussed widely amongst educators and educational circles. Many people believe that every student deserves equal education in which the standard curriculum is taught in a manner that the expected learning outcomes are the same for all students (Carrasquillo & Rodriguez, 2002). Frequently, students that deal with inept English communication participate in everyday academic and social activities within their school and community. More than often, ESL and Limited English Proficiency students (LEP) attend mainstream English classrooms regardless of their struggle understanding the English language. ESL and LEP students who enroll themselves in all-English speaking classrooms without informing the teachers and administrators of...

References: Baker, C. (2011). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. (5th ed.). Bristol, UK: Channel View Books.
Carrasquillo, A. L., & Rodriguez, V. (2002). Language minority students in the mainstream classroom. (2nd ed.). London, England: Cromwell Press.
Garcia, O. (2009). Bilingual education in the 21st century: a global perspective. (1st ed.). Malden, MA: Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell Publications.
Irujo, S. (1998). Teaching bilingual children: Beliefs and behaviors. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Krashen, S. (2009). What is bilingual education? NABE: National Association for Bilingual Education.
McKay, S., & Wong, S. (1988). Language diversity problem or resource? A social and educational perspective on language minorities in the united states. (p. xiii, 386 p.). New York, NY: Newbury House Publishers.
Schugurensky, D. (2002). 1968 bilingual education act. The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of University of Toronto.
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