Plant layout

Topics: Manufacturing, Machine, Job production Pages: 5 (1027 words) Published: April 28, 2014
Outline of Contents:
What is Plant layout?
Necessity of good layout
Factors affecting good layout
Principles of good layout
Advantages of good layout
Symptoms of poor layout
Types of layout

Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machines, equipment, tools, furniture etc. in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of raw material to the delivery of the final product. Plant Layout is a plan of an optimum arrangement of facilities including personnel, operating equipment, storage space, material handling equipments and all other supporting services along with the design of best structure to contain all these facilities. A good layout is one which allows material rapidly and directly for processing. This reduces transport handling, clerical and other costs down per unit. Space requirement are minimized and it reduces idle machine time and idle time of man. Necessity of good plant layout

Minimization of material handling
Optimum utilization of available floor space
Elimination of bottlenecks through balancing of all capacities Minimization o production delays
Easy supervision and better manpower resources through elimination of idle time Elimination of physical efforts required by workers
Elimination or improvement of objectionable operations. E.g. Operations with bad odor, vibrating operations etc. Avoiding industrial accidents
Better working conditions like light, ventilation, noise control etc. Optimum utilization of machinery and equipment through proper use. Minimization of cost so that product will be available at cheaper rate to customer and delivery in time.

Factors affecting facility Layout

Nature of plant-Engineering/Process Industry
Type of Production-Mass/Flow, Batch, Job Shop
Type of Production-Make to Stock/order, std/spec
Plant Location-Area available, building type-storey
Volume of Production-Scale of production
Types of machines and equipment-automation
Repairs and maintenance -Policy, schedule on site
Arrangement of material handling equipment
Future expansion plan

Principles of good Layout
Minimum Handling
Minimum investment
Integration of factors-3M
Minimum movement-Distance/Flow
Continuous flow-forward
Optimum utilization of available space
Maximum visibility
Maximum accessibility
Maximum Flexibility
Safety, Security and Satisfaction

Advantages of Good Plant Layout
Proper and efficient utilization of available floor space
Transportation of work from one point to another point without any delay Proper utilization of production capacity.
Reduce material handling costs
Utilize labor efficiently
Reduce accidents
Provide for volume and product flexibility
Provide ease of supervision and control
Provide for employee safety and health
Allow easy maintenance of machines and plant.
Improve productivity

Symptoms of Poor Layout
Delays and work stoppage in manufacturing process
Slow movement of material through the plant
Congestion of materials, components and work in progress
Poor utilization of space
High material handling and transportation costs
Excessive handling by skilled workers
Production cycles and delays in delivery
Mental or physical strain on operators
Difficulties in maintain effective supervision and control
Underutilization of machines and workers
Lack of flexibility and difficulty in production planning and control

Types Of Layout:
There are mainly four types of plant layout:
(a) Product or line layout
(b) Process or functional layout
(c) Fixed position or location layout
(d) Combined or group layout

Product or line layout:
In this type of layout the machines and equipments are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operations required for the product. It is also called as line layout. The material moves to...
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